January, 2015

The Role of Scientific Organizations

The Warsaw meeting participants generally believed that scientific organizations could play valuable roles as partners in promoting and sustaining education about dual use issues, and could undertake mutually reinforcing activities to integrate education and awareness within the scientific community. One clear advantage is that scientific societies and other professional membership associations reach a significant base of working scientists in relevant areas of the life sciences. Their engagement provides authoritative and credible endorsement for the importance of addressing the challenges dual use issues pose. Such messages may also be more acceptable to scientists from such a source than from governments.

Participants acknowledged that capacity varied greatly among the organizations and that the splintering of the life sciences among many separate groups at the national and international level made the task of engaging “the life sciences community” more difficult. A number of these organizations are already active in biosecurity, however, as their roles as conveners of the workshop illustrated.

These organizations operate at the national, regional, and international level, as well as serving particular scientific fields. Even if nationally based, the organizations may have a significant international membership. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), for example, includes over 43,000 individual microbiologists, approximately 30 percent of whom are international members. Regional and international unions and other federations of multiple societies can serve wider geographical and disciplinary representation and may effectively play diplomatic roles in conveying broad messages to their national members. Materials produced by one society may also be distributed for adaptation and use by others via these federations. In this way, smaller members may benefit from existing resources generated by larger organizations. The Interna- tional Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS), for example, includes over 100 societies in 65 countries, of which ASM is one of the largest members. Similar unions exist in molecular biology (International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IUBMB), chemistry (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC), and other related fields. The IUPAC Multiple Uses of Chemicals was described in Chapter 3, and as announced during the Warsaw workshop, the first IUMS regional course for graduate students and practicing professionals from developing coun- tries, “Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses,” held in Singapore in June 2010, included a short session on dual use issues led by Professor Geoffrey Smith, a member of the workshop organizing committee.

From the things above, you may have learned something important about education. But now if you need to learn something about language learning with software, come to Rosetta Stone Hindi and Rosetta Stone Italian.

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Knowing something on education is constructive, but learning with some foreign languages like Rosetta Stone English and Rosetta Stone French could make you learn either of the two languages much better.

This Is The Sources Of Methods How To Learn Spanish Easily

It’s always a great idea to learn a second language. In the U.S., Spanish is nearly as commonplace as English. You’ll very often hear English messages repeated into Spanish. So it’s a great idea to learn and include Spanish into your life. Of course, for many people, learning new languages is very difficult. What follows are some helpful tips and a few tricks you can use to make things easier.

Some people believe that one of the best ways to learn a language is to immerse yourself in the language for a while. If you were trying to learn Spanish, for example, you would visit somewhere in which Spanish was the primary language. If you live in a big city this might be an area of your own city. Going abroad, however, puts more pressure on you to learn the new language; at home, you can just return to your own neighborhood where your old language is spoken. Language immersion puts you in a kind of sink or swim mode, which can practically force you to become fluent. This does, no doubt, test your comfort zone, and not everyone likes this. It’s a matter of personal preference.

Whenever you can, start to think in Spanish rather than your native language. Whenever you catch yourself thinking about anything, make the effort to translate whatever it is into Spanish. You will need to start slow with this. The idea is to take any internal dialogues you might have into the Spanish equivalent as much as possible. This is something you have to practice regularly to get comfortable with it. You will get faster at the translation. You will know you have mastered this when you find that you sometimes think in the new language when you aren’t even intending. Once you can think in Spanish, you can then practice making these thoughts verbal by speaking them out loud; this way your ability to speak the language will also improve.

Try reviewing your vocabulary by using flashcards. This may seem very simple, but it works well. These are basic memorization tools and the reason people still use them is because they work! With flashcards you can quiz yourself on vocabulary and grammar and tenses. Flashcards are usually pretty small so you can take them with you when you leave the house and work on your Spanish in your spare time. You can also have someone quiz you. All you have to do is use one side for Spanish and the other for your first language; it’s that easy!

There are lots of reasons to learn another language but figuring out the best way to learn that language can be tough.

You might be thinking about driving to the closest bookstore and getting a book about it. A class is a great idea, and so is meeting people who are fluent. There are a lot of options available when you want to learn Spanish (or any other language). Be sure to have lots of fun!

About the Author

Ilona’s websites: Grooms Cakes, Graffiti Cans, Mules for Sale and Rashes in Children.

Four Steps for Effective ESL Speaking

ESL students need to speak English well. Students may understand how to write and employ good grammar and vocabulary. They may get good scores on tests. Yet if they can’t express ideas or instructions smoothly in a conversation, few would call them proficient. Language is for communication, and that primarily means speaking.

As teachers, we must continually assess the strengths and weaknesses of our classes. We take this information and develop effective lessons, always working towards improved speaking skills. We consider how to balance fluency with accuracy, or how smoothly and quickly students speak with how accurately they use grammar and vocabulary. Here are four steps which serve as a guide for how to teach English speaking. These steps work towards free use of the language in the classroom.

Before the four steps are explained, let’s define conversational ability. Conversation involves the following: using the language, listening to the language, processing the information, and then responding to information. The reason for the conversation affects the process. In addition, the people in the conversation and the place in which the conversation takes places also affect the process. For example, communication with business colleagues over lunch will use very different language from communication with friends over lunch.

A good speaker of English uses grammar and vocabulary effectively and accurately. Someone who speaks well should understand when to use various grammar points, the meaning and nuance of words, and even specific phrases or idioms related to English for specific purposes. Lessons which involve speaking activities should always strive to build and reinforce these skills. Over time, decisions in language usage like the above need to become more automatic.

Preparation: You should allow the students to prepare for the tasks ahead with an effective warm-up. The warm up gives all of the students in the class enough time to get their English wheels turning. Adequate time translates into fewer mistakes when you present and practice the target language (the two steps which follow).

Present: Next present the target grammar or any vocabulary selected for the lesson. The warm up can serve as a first step into the lesson. Information from the warm up gets recycled, with vocabulary or target language unknowingly used serving as examples in this step.

Practice: After the presentation, the ESL class needs to practice the new material. It’s unfair to expect them to make use of the material without adequate practice. Drills work to achieve automaticity, even with upper-ability classes. Restrictive drills, or controlled practice, with new grammar points or vocabulary provide the foundation and provide examples. Activities should then move into freer and freer use of the language. This will allow each student to integrate the lesson material with pre-existing language.

Free Use: You should always work towards real use of the language. The first part of the lesson focuses on accurate language production. It’s done to let students build their fluency skills – in other words, to speak smoothly, quickly, and expand on their ideas. Activities towards the end of the lesson let students select vocabulary and grammar structures, both studied that day and in past lessons, and use them in real, meaningful conversation. These activities also let upper-level learners apply speaking strategies, use gestures and body language, and change their language for the intended listener.

For students to be considered proficient in English, they need to speak well. Language is part of communication, most often used in oral communication. Teachers should work towards incorporating these four steps: preparation, presentation, practice, and free use of the language.

These steps allow you to teach English speaking that gets students to talk more. They then achieve more in each language lesson, and over time make greater strides towards proficiency with the language.

About the Author

For more ideas and information about how to teach English speaking, please visit Chris Cotter’s www.betterlangaugeteaching.com .

Learning English for IELTS or TOEFL

TOEFL and IELTS are the two biggest standardized tests of the English language. These tests assess your reading, listening, speaking and writing skills. This article is a brief introduction about learning English for IELTS or TOEFL

The eye (physical eye and mind’s eye) plays a major role in your English language learning process. Eye contact processes ideas unit by unit, helps to break sentences in correct places and to use stress on words which we wish to focus on before we begin to write or speak. When learning English for IELTS or TOEFL, your reading, listening and understanding skills should be brought to perfection.

As you read a sentence, the picture drawn by its words should appear to your mental eye. A complete sentence is a perfect picture. If you are unable to see this mental picture or get an unclear picture, you won’t be able to give the correct answer to the question set to test you English language skills. To have a perfect picture, you must be able to break a sentence into component units. This is highly important in speaking.

If you break the part of a sentence in wrong places, the examiner will grade your performance very poor. Most students preparing for IELTS and TOEFL never pay any attention to this. Isn’t it absurd to break sentences in the manner of ‘ This is my …..book and ….. that is my …..pen..’ ‘ Then I….. went to the …. railway station to … see my … friend off.’ They should be read or spoken as ,’This is ….my book …and …. that is …. my pen. ‘ Then …. I went …. to the railway station .. to see … my friend off.’ It is not correct to use a preposition and article together without a noun. But we commonly hear sound units like ‘in the’, ‘on the’, ‘ at the’, ‘under the’, ‘over the’ etc. So don’t use this kind of English for IELTS or TOEFL.

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English Language Laboratory by Amarasiri Ganewatta

Learn Spanish – Smart Tips For Fast Learning

Congrats on your decision to learn Spanish! One great thing, the Spanish language is not hard to learn. Even if you are someone who has trouble learning languages; Spanish is such a dominant language today, and there are plenty of methods to use that will make your learning process easier. Read this article to learn just a few things you can do to make your learning process a little easier.

The first thing you should focus on is the way you pronounce words in Spanish. The proof of how well you know a language is in how you sound speaking it, not how well you know the rules of grammar. If you want to quickly get into the habit of speaking Spanish, get anything you can find written in Spanish and read it out loud. While written material is good to practice with, you can also get good practice by repeating any phrases you hear from people actually speaking Spanish. When you do this, you will start to understand the right way to use inflections and put words together into correct sentences. Start practicing this whenever you can; you may be surprised to find that it’s fun. It can feel like singing!

You can take a course. Many people feel intimidated to learn a language along side others. In a course it’s standard practice to talk in the language while you’re learning. This intimidates many people.

You should still do it even if you make lots of mistakes. Everyone else makes the same mistakes, so what better time or place is there to do it? You can stumble over the words together! And that is a lot better than talking to a local, making some insulting mistake, and not being forgiven.

You can also watch Spanish TV and movies. You’ll find quite a lot of Spanish broadcasts, and all movie rental stores have foreign language films. Doing this helps you to learn the proper pronounciation of Spanish. This is helpful if you live somewhere that does not have a large Spanish speaking population to converse with. Just start by watching with subtitles on. Then as your understanding increases, just turn them off and check yourself. Your learning will go much faster by using this method.

Learning Spanish or any new language does not have to be so painful. The beginning may be a little rough, but in time it does get a lot better. You definitely can become fluent if you stay with it and use the helpful tips that are available.

About the Author

Ilona’s websites: Grooms Cakes, Graffiti Cans, Mules for Sale and Rashes in Children.

Rosetta Stone Portuguese Review – Learning A Brand New Language Utilizing An Easier Technique

Are you currently seeking to get hold of a far better option to be able to study Portuguese? You’ll find so many ways for you to do this yet among the many most effective ways that you can check out is via using a computer software. Utilizing a computer software to master a whole new language is amongst the least difficult and cost-efficient ways that you possibly can make use of at present. By far the most famous option presently is the Rosetta Stone Portuguese foreign language learning computer software.

This kind of computer software uses a fresh technique in teaching the language Portuguese. As opposed to going through the actual standard memorization of words and phrases and then translating all of them into the foreign language the person or perhaps the student can have the ability to building a complete sentence utilizing the standard vocabulary skills necessary for comprehension. With regard to honing one’s learning skills; the person is being immersed with the system by means of association approach with the aid of images, texts and speech recognition.

You can find distinct lessons available for you to take to give you the basic principles of studying the language itself such as having the capacity to read many words presented in the very same language, comprehending the words and phrases for every lesson and taking note of the way to verbalize words presented at a certain session. You’ll not have to go through the very same uninteresting stuff such as going to a class only to learn Portuguese as the Rosetta Stone Portuguese language learning computer software lets you learn the language by picking your own path.

The application isn’t that difficult to use considering that even a computer newbie can certainly navigate through the software without difficulty. Soon after getting yourself knowledgeable about the computer software, it’s simple to navigate through the lessons and then manage to pick lessons that you would like to begin with. You’ll also have the ability access to specific tests, exercises along with lesson preview that may surely assist you to throughout the whole learning process. This kind of software program is good enough to use in terms of learning Portuguese the simpler way. With enough immersion you will soon manage to have an understanding of and also speak the language with complete confidence just as if it is your native language.

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To Learn Portuguese can be a fulfilling activity whether you are doing it for fun or business. Visit us to sign up for our Newsletter and Rosetta Stone Portuguese.

What About the English-Chinese Language Translations Today?

Do you need English – Chinese language translations? Do you want to learn mandarin Chinese language? Than, you should know some basic information about this fascinating and interesting language! It is often considered one of the most difficult languages in the world. It has no alphabet and its characters (also called hieroglyphs) must be remembered in learning. Chinese language has five recognized Dialect Groups, meaning fifty-six dialects! To speak and learn mandarin Chinese language, involve four tones, sounding like a rapid series of almost identical monosyllables. In addition, they could easily create confusion. All of these seem to make it almost inaccessible for the people interested in studying it or get in contact with it!

However, Chinese language translations are very interesting work, full of challenges and not the last, very important in the international relationships. Chinese is a Sino-Tibetan language, the term “sinophone”, coinciding in analogy with anglophone or francophone, referring to the people who speak it natively, or prefer it as a medium of communication. The term sinophone is derived from “Sinae”, the Latin word for the ancient China. There is a dispute about whether linguistic groups of Chinese language should be categorized as languages or dialects! However, it is usually accepted that there are five major dialect groups within the language group of Chinese: Mandarin, Wu, Min, Yue and Hakka.

Mandarin or Simplified Chinese is the official language spoken in mainland China where it is known as Pu-Tong-Hua, Taiwan (Guo-Yu) and Singapore (Hua-Yu). In Singapore Chinese is the official language, but not the main one! Simplified Chinese is spoken by approximately 1 billion people all over the world, starting from South Eastern Asia until other regions in the world where the Chinese population is very representative, like Australia, Mauritius, Peru, North America, etc. In China, the Government included the present official language in 1948, after the establishment of the new People’s Republic of China. One of the major tasks of the Chinese governments during the second half of the twentieth century was to standardize the common language in order to make the written language more accessible. Mandarin was created based on Beijing dialect, being used over years in public institutions, on the radio and television, in government agencies, in the media, and as a language of instruction in schools.

As China was during the years an important economical power in the world, it was also an attractive partner for businesspersons from many countries. In the last years, the economy of China has known a major development, becoming in 2008 the third largest economical power in the world, after the United States and Japan. China has been the fastest growing major nation for the past quarter of the century with an average annual GDP growth rate above 10%! Now, you would say “Ok, but what is the connection between the China’s economical increase and Chinese language translations?”

Well, the impetuous development of China’s economy in the last years led same time to the increase of businesspersons’ interest towards this country! In this respect, the necessity and importance of English – Chinese language translations (especially) of different texts, correspondence, documents, certificates, etc, used in business relationships appeared as a very important and essential activity. This is more an important factor, very helpful in the development of relationships between businesspersons all over the world that use these two languages. Some major companies traditionally cooperate with Chinese partners and established strong business relationships with them. In this respect, they needed to employ their own translators but there are still a lot of companies and businesspersons who appeal to the agencies or independent translators, also called “freelancers”. Whomever they appeal, they are optimistic for a very good job, qualitative, accuracy translations and prompt delivery!

The personal matters involve also the necessity of translations, generated by different men’s needs. There are many ordinary people in the world that get in contact with Chinese people, establishing different cultural, personal, friendship relationships and marriages with these. Thus appears for them the necessity of appealing to the translators in order to facilitate the communication, by translating different texts, messages, personal documents, certificates, diplomas, degrees, etc. Here intervenes the Chinese translator’s part: beyond their knowledge, they must show great ambition, enthusiasm and competence in order to realize the best translation grammatical, in spelling and original’s context. As the competition in this market is very tough, they also have to show great respect and seriousness towards the client, large availability for his requirements and “in time” delivery.

About the Author

For more, visit http://www.sparkling-markets.com/ChineseTranslations.html. Cristina Dong is an experienced translator from English to Chinese and reverse. She is a graduate of Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU) and a very passionate person of chinese language and culture.

Talk Korean to Satisfy Your Learning

Have you comprehended that it will be very efficient for your learning when you try to learn Korean talking? I have noticed that you have an problem with that view that talking Korean, you must in the beginning study the vocabulary. “Just a minute,” I am able to hear you point out! “It is not realistic to aspire to conduct any specific sensible conversation in this language if you intend not to learn to speak a Korean language at first!”

Initially your own point might be a very prevailing one, nonetheless a small amount of analysis can change your mind. Perhaps it is really fair to say that a great many learners in this language along with you would recognize that point. Nonetheless it is true to point out that lots of learners learning Korean are not effective at learning to talk the language, but they have been working hard! Seemingly I can see that I ought to elaborate further! Nevertheless I am unconvinced that you really trust my point! Your argument must be that you can go out and talk with people rather than stay here learning Korean about how to communicate in the language. Because towards the end of the day, your aim is to learn the conversation. Based on this proof, you can try Rosetta Stone Korean, which can surely guide you to the right direction.

There is one thing that to converse with others is the proper way to go for you. Then you should always be introduced to conversational from beginning. You’ll find many more good benefits of choosing this engagement approach! Sadly, there exists generally not enough interest to learn sentence structure and the common Korean expressions. The majority of students target getting more Korean words, especially the verbs and nouns. It is not so good if you usually do that, but you can learn Hindi words along with Rosetta Stone Hindi.

Certainly, that is usually a factor for the reason why a large number of language-learners who seem to set out to try to discover how to speak this language just do not reach it at all? Certainly they have already made bigger vocabulary in this language. Would certainly you pass and audit in a lot of action-word conjugation rules? Yes they will understand this inside each tense with each verb person furthermore! And they will also learn how to use Rosetta Stone Hebrew to learn Hebrew.

In summary, you need to try to speak this language as much as you can.

About the Author

I like learning, about lots of things. Language learning is part of it. Apart from it, I learn to know science, nature,computer and so on.I hope to post all the things I have learned into this place,sharing my happiness.

The Secret to Learning to Speak German Easily

Learning a language is not easy. And the older you get the more difficult it seems to become. We live in a world where we all want instant results and want to speak a new language quickly. However, learning a new language will take many months of dedicated effort. You have to learn the alphabet system of the language, which may be different from yours. If learning languages like Chinese, Japanese or Korean will require considerable more effort before you can read and write the language. You have to learn the sound system of the language. Then, you have to learn the words which take a long time as you will require about 1000 words vocabulary to begin to be fluent in the language. Next, you have to learn the particular properties of the words because the properties will tell you how to put them together in a sentence. You do this by hearing them used correctly in sentences, preferably, by a native speaker of that language. It is best to not learn too much grammar at first as you will become bogged down in all the grammatical rules and not enjoy learning and using the language.

When you were a child and learned to speak you did not learn the grammar of the language first. You learnt simple single syllable words such as mum, dad, good, bad, cat, dog, etc. You then learnt words with two syllables. Then you learnt some more words that enabled you to be more expressive. You started to put some words together eg you are bad, mum is good, I like dog, etc. You learnt adjectives and added them to your sentences eg I like small dog, I like hot food. You did not learn to read and write until you could speak fluently. And you did not learn grammatical rules until you could read and write the basics of the language.

Why do most foreign language courses start by teaching the grammatical rules of the language. This is the most difficult and unnatural way to learn a language. It is also boring for students and not much fun. One of the key elements in learning a language is motivation and staying motivated until you become proficient enough to communicate with native language speakers. Learning a language has to be fun and interesting or students simply lose interest and fail to learn.

The German language software approach is to mimic the way we learned to speak our native language when learning German. The absolute best way to learn German is by listening and repeating what you hear. After all, that’s how you learned the language you speak now. The software makes use of interactive learning activities and highly entertaining word games that result in greater memory retention of what has been learned. These fun games greatly help students stay highly motivated while learning the language resulting in a quicker, easier and more productive learning experience.

About the Author

Rocket German emphasizes developing the ability to speak German and understand what you’re saying in context before you learn the details of grammar. This is the easiest and most productive language learning method.

Learning Mandarin and Pronunciation

Learning to communicate in Mandarin is more popular today than it has ever been before. Today, globally, roughly 1 million people are trying to learn the lingua franca of contemporary China. The figure keeps rising every year and it is not difficult to make an educated guess as to why people all of a sudden have become so interested. The last twenty years has been incredible for China. Annual growth rates at around 10% has seen the Chinese economy grow threefold, market liberalization has allowed ordinary people to control their property and increased global attention on China has put the huge country in the east right in the living room of most western households. All this and hundreds of other changes in the middle kingdom have made Chinas’ future seem very bright indeed and people have come to see what they can do about sharing some of the benefits. So what about learning this language? The one language that holds the key to perhaps the greatest paradigm shift of our time. Practice makes perfect in most aspects of human endeavor and the same applies to mandarin language studies. Practice in terms of language studies really means just one thing: speaking Mandarin, and in terms of possible places where this can be done – they are pretty much limited to China. So the first step to learn Mandarin is getting on an eastbound plane. The second step is to find a place to learn the language in a structured way. Because, although learning Mandarin is best done by speaking, you will need to start somewhere. That somewhere is most likely a place with the following characteristic: a very small class s size.

Class size – matters more than anything else when it comes to learning to speak a language quickly. The reason for this is especially important for Mandarin language studies: pronunciation is key to get to grips with enough basics to start using the language, and for mandarin, this is no easy task. In fact, it is much much harder than it is for a Germanic or Latin language speaker to learn a second language from one of these two groups. The reason for this being the case is that Mandarin is not only, of course, completely different in its syllable mark up compared to these language, as they have no common ancestry, there is also the fact that there is an additional dimension to Mandarin pronunciation that you will never have encountered before. The concept is called tones, but these tones are not like the tones you can get out of a musical instrument such as A-minor or G-flat, they are pitch modulation. So a syllable pronounced with a high and extended pitch means something different from a syllable pronounced with a sharp falling pitch. For example: the syllable that means to buy: mai, can also mean to sell if modulated differently. Mai, with an initially slightly falling pitch and then a rising pitch means to buy. Mai, with a sharp falling pitch, means to sell.

This may seem like a really difficult task to get used to, and it is. However, it does not really make learning Mandarin any harder or easier. In the long run it takes at least a year or two to learn a new language. You will, if properly instructed, clear this first hurdle within weeks. That does however need to be qualified in the sense that class size will play a crucial role in making it true. If you are in a class room of thirty students, for example, you are going to get roughly 0 time with the teacher’s undivided attention and so you are never really going to be able to get past the first obstacle.
But, in the end one thing matters above all: that you enjoy your time learning the language. As I said, it does take time, and life is very short. Don’t waste it learning Mandarin in a way does not suit your taste, you will not be happy and you will not do as well as you have if you were in a place that catered to your personality.

About the Author

Rui Ming works for a Mandarin Language School in China that is a great option for those that want to learn mandarin, the lingua franca of contemporary China. See the program overview page for more information about studying Mandarin in China.

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