September, 2013

Developing Norms of Participation in Science

To participate fully in the scientific practices in the classroom, students need to develop a shared understanding of the norms of participation in science. This includes social norms for constructing and presenting a scientific argument and engaging in scientific debates. It also includes habits of mind, such as adopting a critical stance, a willingness to ask questions and seek help, and developing a sense of appropriate trust and skepticism.

Interconnections Among the Strands Interconnections among the strands in the process of learning are supported by research, although the strength of the research evidence varies across the strands. The cognitive research literatures support the value of teaching content in the context of the practices of science. For example, the knowledge factor, that is, the depth of one’s knowledge of the domain, has repeatedly been identified as a primary factor in the power or limitations of one’s scientific reasoning (Brewer and Samarapungavan, 1991; Brown, 1990; Carey, 1985; Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, 1981; Goswami and Brown, 1989;see also the discussion in Chapter 5). Not surprisingly, both children’s and adults’ scientific reasoning tends to be strongest in domains in which their knowledge is strongest. Therefore, if the goal is to advance the leading edge of children’s scientific reasoning, their instruction needs to be grounded in contexts that also build on their relatively robust understanding of content.

There is also mounting evidence that knowledge of scientific explanations of the natural world is advanced through generating and evaluating scientific evidence. For example, instruction designed to engage students in modelbased reasoning advances their conceptual understanding of natural phenomena (see, for example, Brown and Clement, 1989; Lehrer et al., 2001;Stewart, Cartier, and Passmore, 2005; White, 1993; Wiser and Amin, 2001;see also the discussions in Chapter 4 and Chapter 9).Evidence for links between Strands 3 and 4 and the other two strands is less robust, but emerging findings are compelling. Motivation, which is anelement of Strand 4, clearly plays an important role in learning (see Chapter 7). Furthermore, instruction that makes the norms for participating in science explicit supports students’ ability to critique evidence and coordinate theory and evidence ( Herrenkohl and Guerra, 1998; for further discussion, see Chapters 7 and 9).

Although we have teased apart aspects of understanding and learning to do science as four interrelated strands, we do not separate these as separate learning objectives in our treatment of the pedagogical literature. Indeed, there is evidence that while the strands can he assessed separately, students use them in concert when engaging in scientific tasks (Gotwals and Songer,2006). For example, learning a foreign language need a leaning tools, many people choose Rosetta Stone Hindi to learn Hindi. Therefore, we contend that to help children develop conceptual understanding of natural systems in any deep way requires engaging them in scientific practices that incorporate all four strands to help them to build and apply conceptual models, as well as to understand science as a disciplinary way of knowing.

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After reading the article above, maybe you have learned something on language acquisition. But if you have the intention to learn more, use Rosetta Stone Chinese and Rosetta Stone Portuguese, both of which will never make you dissatisfied.

Seeking Ideas To Help Learning Spanish

For many people who are new to learning languages, learning Spanish can feel like a difficult task. It’s likely that you were told to start with Spanish because it is supposed to be easy to learn. It’s easy to learn just about any language, you only need to figure out which learning tricks you’ll use. There are many tips and suggestions to make your learning a lot easier. Feel free to try these tricks:

If possible, hire a tutor. Learning from books and CDs is great, but a tutor will be able to help you out with things you might not be able to figure out on your own with a book or a CD. Of course, it’s necessary for a language tutor to have fluency in the language they are teaching. They should be able to teach you about specific dialects within the language.

If you will be traveling to a Spanish speaking country, learning the local dialect will help a lot with better communications. More importantly, a tutor can tell you about the casual uses of the words you will be learning. A book or CD will normally teach the formal usage of language. A tutor can teach you slang!

You can take a course. Many people are afraid to learn Spanish through a course with other students. In a class setting, people normally have to speak the language in front of others. This can be very intimidating!

You should still do it even if you make lots of mistakes. There’s no better way to learn it because everyone is making mistakes, as well! Everyone can all join in the mistake making! It’s certainly better than committing your mistakes in front of a stranger who may be less prone to forgiveness.

It will also help you to watch Spanish TV and movies. You’ll find quite a lot of Spanish broadcasts, and all movie rental stores have foreign language films. You’ll hear how Spanish words are suppose to be spoken. And this will help you if you cannot have access to anyone who speaks Spanish. When you watch, be sure to enable subtitles on. Then as your understanding increases, just turn them off and check yourself. The more you do this, the more of the language you will pick up! We’ve looked at just a few of the many possible ways you can make learning Spanish easier.

There are many sources of assistance; look online or in your local community. You will find that some methods will work better for you than others. The best way to find the method that works best is to try a variety of them. It is inevitable that one or more methods will work for you, and then your Spanish will quickly improve.

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Steve’s website: Friesian Horses for Sale, Free Covers Net, Frame Magazine and Frame Html.

Helpful Steps To Learn Spanish Easily

It’s always a great idea to learn a second language. Spanish as almost as widely spoken as English in the United States. Think about it: how many times are English messages repeated in Spanish? This is only one good reason to learn Spanish. Of course, very many people have a tough time tackling a second language. If you have trouble learning languages, here are a few tips to help you out:

Work on your “Spanish tongue” this means working on your pronunciation of Spanish vocabulary. The proof of how well you know a language is in how you sound speaking it, not how well you know the rules of grammar. If you want to quickly get into the habit of speaking Spanish, get anything you can find written in Spanish and read it out loud. Whenever you hear people speaking Spanish fluently, record the words in your mind and repeat what you can recall later. When you do this, you will start to understand the right way to use inflections and put words together into correct sentences. It’s likely that you will have fun when you practice speaking out loud in a new language. It can be a kind of game, or like making music. Whenever you can, start to think in Spanish rather than your native language. You may find this hard at first, but you can gradually learn how to transform your thoughts into a new language. Don’t expect to do this perfectly right away. Periodically throughout your day ask yourself how you would say the words you are thinking in Spanish. Like any skill, you can become better at it the more you try it. You will get faster at the translation. Then, one day, you may suddenly realize you were thinking in Spanish on your own. Once you can think in Spanish, you can then practice making these thoughts verbal by speaking them out loud; this way your ability to speak the language will also improve.

Surround your self in your new language.

Do you live in a town or city that has a neighborhood where the predominant language is Spanish? One of the best ways to learn Spanish is to listen to fluent speakers talk to each other. You might also find that people in these neighborhoods are happy to help new speakers learn how to properly communicate. It’s convenient, close by, and you can receive really great practice speaking Spanish. There is no good reason to suffer frustration while learning Spanish – or any language. The net is full of helpful ideas and cool tools to help you. The key to it all is maintaining an open mind for learning. Your mind will more easily absorb the knowledge when it is open. It will be much harder for you if you try to make it sound similar to your own native tongue.

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Adam’s websites: Sun Country Airlines, Viking Airlines, Usaha Untuk Mahasiswa and MAS Airlines Online Booking.

Several Functional Suggestions To Discover Spanish Instantly

If you have been thinking about understanding how to learn Spanish, you may be wondering ways to fit this undertaking in to your hectic life with best way to learn Spanish. Lots of people believe that learning a foreign language is difficult and time intensive and they will have to go to courses in a nearby college in order to achieve this specific goal.

Fortunately, this really is no longer the case because there are many options available that may help you learn to speak another language quickly with language course. Some choose to acquire a new language by using compact disks that can be used anywhere. There are also audio CDs, books, computer software that teach a new language. Many programs offer a combination of many different devices to understand a new language. There are many different systems that teach step-by-step methods of learning a new language. They will typically start with basic keywords and phrases and then will work up to syntax as well as correct sentence structure.

There are a number of different methods to pick up a new language at a rapid pace. It is important to start with the basics and understand common vocabulary words. They are also quick ways to learn how to pronounce words. It is a good idea to use programs that you can travel with. For instance, CDs that you can play in your car or systems that you can download onto an MP3 player can be very helpful. This will help you to immerse yourself into learning a new language. It is important to choose methods that offer the flexibility, allowing you to discover a new language at any time. DVDs are usually another good option with regard to learning to speak a new language.

In certain areas, more and more people speak Spanish compared to English. Knowing how to talk and translate this language is very beneficial. Learning another language is always advisable. There are many resources to use to pick up another language.

There are a lot of websites offering excellent information when it comes to acquiring a new language. They are highly interactive and fun. There are many online programs that will keep you engaged and make learning a new language extremely fun. There are many great an online translator sites as well. All you have to do is type in your own word or phrase and it will provide you with the direct translation.

It is helpful to learn a new language with someone else. They can help you practice speaking the new language. It is very important to find different ways to keep yourself engrossed in the new language. There are books that will help you read a new language very quickly. There are also several online applications. You can mix up the different resources to help you pickup the language at a faster rate. But nothing beats actually speaking the language with native speakers.

Accessing online or other methods make it easy to learn the vocabulary within the shortest period possible. The language training websites also generally feature forums where one can participate with additional students. The community forums are frequented by several novice as well as advanced speakers. This is a great way to advance in the language.

About the Author

To learn Spanish, you must practice with people who speak the language. This will help you to pronounce the words correctly and build your vocabulary for Spanish learning. It is a good idea to start off with simple and commonly used phrases. It is also a good idea to understand basic vocabulary words through grammar lessons.

Learn These Fist Helpful Steps for Learning Spanish Quickly

It’s always a great idea to learn a second language. In the United States today, Spanish is almost as prevalent as English. How many times a day do you hear something in English translated into Spanish? This is only one good reason to learn Spanish. But a lot of people have difficulty with learning new languages. If you have trouble learning languages, here are a few tips to help you out:

The first thing you should focus on is the way you pronounce words in Spanish. The proof of how well you know a language is in how you sound speaking it, not how well you know the rules of grammar. Read out loud from books in Spanish to get a feel for how the language flows. Read out loud from Spanish magazines and practice repeating phrases you hear in Spanish from fluent speakers. This process can show you how to use proper inflections and using words in the right order and even the way idioms are used in Spanish. An added bonus is that reading out loud in a separate language–especially when you work at it–is a lot of fun. It can feel like singing!

Try to develop your ‘ear’ for Spanish, or any new language. Many languages are more oral than they are written. You will still need to learn how to ‘hear’ a language as long as it’s still alive. Writing the alphabet or the correct way to write a sentence is not enough. You will need to understand people when they talk to you. The best way to do this is to listen to as much of your chosen language as possible. When you’re able to positively identify the language after hearing a few words spoken, then that’s a sure sign you’re well on your way to learning it.

Become immersed in the language. Is there anywhere close where most people speak Spanish? One really great way to learn is listening in on a conversation between people who are fluent. You might also find that people in these neighborhoods are happy to help new speakers learn how to properly communicate. You’ll be able to practice Spanish without traveling to some place far away.

You don’t have to struggle to learn a new language. Keep in mind that Spanish is much easier to learn than many other languages. When it comes to learning a language, there are many ways to proceed. Everyone has to choose the method that it best for them. The perfect method for you to learn is out there; you just have to find it. Remember that whatever method you use, you have to give yourself time to make progress.

About the Author

Janey’s website: Bluegill Fishing, Gallery Coats, Grass Types and Hobie Cat 16.

Level C Vocabulary Answers as a Part of the Bigger Workshop Series

Vocabulary Workshop Answers Level C contains the answers to the third series of the Sadlier Oxford Vocabulary Workshop. The workshop aims to improve the vocabulary of the students through the use of different assessment tools and through constant practice and strategy application.

The Level C Workshop is very helpful towards students and teachers in helping the students achieve better vocabulary grasp. Each unit in the workshop utilizes different ways in learning the vocabulary. It includes learning the correct way to pronounce a word and identifying its function in the sentence or in a context.

At the end of the workshop, the students would have better comprehension skills after they have diligently checked their answers against the vocabulary workshop answers level C. This would help them recognize their errors at the same time give them the chance to analyze their answers as to why it was either the right one or the wrong one.

Like other parts of the workshop, the Level C Workshop also contains diagnostic tools and mastery tools as well as simulations to determine the effectiveness of the workshops. It also allows teachers to monitor the progression of their student’s vocabulary knowledge. Grammar, reading and writing are all given emphasis on the workshop as it is greatly understood that these could vastly improve the students’ comprehension skills when they have good foundations on these three aspects.

Once Level C is completed, the students would be able to progress to a much more challenging level. But before that, students would have to make sure that they were able to learn something valuable and would be able to retain their learning. Strategies like cumulative reviews are found all over the workshops to help students retain valuable information.

Vocabulary Workshop Answers Level C is just a part of the bigger picture in helping students and teachers towards vocabulary enhancement. But this is also a necessary step before a student could progress to more challenging levels.

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Hey I hope this article really helped you out with your studying!

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Skype English Learning – English Lessons for Individuals

Learning English is easier than ever with online learning set ups. Through Skype, students take English lessons for many reasons. They prepare for English fluency tests, they are getting ready for a job, or they just want personal enrichment. Whatever the reason, Skype English learning is easy and effective. It is accessible from anywhere in the world. This allows students to have native English speakers for teachers. Individuals who wish to improve their English cannot pass up this great, low cost opportunity. Individual lessons move at the pace the student is comfortable with. Lessons can be scheduled to fit into the student’s schedule.
Nothing is better for learning than a one on one environment. With Skype English learning, one on one is the general format. A student and teacher meet together online via Skype and conduct their lesson almost entirely on Skype from anywhere in the world. Because of the ability to connect all over the world, all of the teachers in these programs are native English speakers. The lessons are tailored to the student in every way. The schedule is determined on an individual basis, and the lesson material too. The pace of the lessons keeps in step with the individual student as well.
<a target=”_new” href=” Training in English can include classes that specifically address the needs of the students. Classes are available in interview practice, business English, test preparation, conversational English, etc. A class in business English can include a lesson on interviewing if the student feels they need that practice. Though classes are designed for certain purposes, custom tailoring allows the student to mix and match class content. Classes are usually available 24/7 and can be scheduled at varying times. The only restriction is that classes must be scheduled several days in advance. Skype English learning is adaptable to the needs of the student.
Skype English learning may be the very best way to learn English. It is not only individually based curriculum but also individual time. No traditional school in the world offers such one on one attention. Students get plenty of conversation time and are never lacking practice with the things they need the most. The costs of individual lessons are unmatched as well. Lessons can cost as little as $26 CAD. Skype is free in most places and the only other costs are for high speed internet, a headset and webcam.

About the Author

Grace Rimando graduated in 2006 with a Bachelor’s degree in Communication. She is currently working at TalktoCanada as the Assistant to the Programs Manager

English Grammar: How to End Sentences

How does one know if a sentence ends with a period? When does one need to use a question mark? When is it necessary to punctuate a sentence with an exclamation point? For those who are not used to the writing rules of English grammar, these things can be confusing. However, there is no need to worry because with the help of this article, all of these will be answered. So read on and sharpen your knowledge in punctuations.

The first topic of discussion is the use of the period. In English grammar, the period is the most commonly used punctuation mark when it comes to ending sentences. This is because most sentences are statements and statements usually end with a period. Some examples are “My favorite color is green.” and “She was my professor in Psychology class.” Periods are also used to end indirect questions, an instance of which would be “She asked me what the assignment for today was.” On the other hand, in a sentence’s last word ends with a period, then there’s no more need to put another period to indicate that the sentence has reached its conclusion. Two illustrations of this are “My sister introduced me to an M.D. She said that the doctor is her new boyfriend.” and “I went to the mall and bought new shirts, shorts, etc. I hope these are enough for the whole semester.”

The next punctuation in the English grammar to be discussed in this article is the question mark. As obvious as its name is, the question mark indicates an inquiry. Therefore, it is used in only two instances. The first of which is a direct question. “What do you want to be when you grow up?” “Why were you absent yesterday?” and “How much is that bag?” are some examples of the this. The second instance that entails the use of a question mark is when one half of a sentence is a statement, but the other half is still a question. The sentence “You did eat the apple, didn’t you?” is a case that shows this.

The sentence ending punctuation mark in the English grammar that would complete this article is the exclamation point. The latter is only used to show great feelings, thus it is never utilized in formal letters, academic papers, and the like. “I’m shocked!” and “The death of my cat truly saddens me!” both illustrate immense emotions, and making use of the exclamation point emphasizes this.

In conclusion, it is very important to know the proper way of ending sentences. It will be easier for one to convey his or her messages to others, and it will be easier for others to understand one’s points and opinions as well. With the help of punctuation marks, one becomes more effective in his or her usage of the English grammar as well as becoming more eloquent and confident as a writer or speaker. So always practice using the proper punctuation marks in ending all your sentences.

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Go to the official English Grammar website for more grammar lessons, rules, and news for everyday use –

Certifications of English Language with TLC and British Institutes

TLC, the Learning Center of Tuscany, is part of the British Institutes Group as the main center in Florence, Italy.

The school offers a wide range of English courses based on the English Communicative Method (ECM) and a comprehensive testing services (UCAS accredited) that results in the British Institutes certificate.

The several courses provided by TLC are general group courses, private lessons, business English courses, on-site courses at business place, English for young learners courses.

Besides many different and interesting courses, TLC offers also the opportunity to choose among a wide range of certification programs, which will attest students’ real skills in English language.

As a matter of fact, in order to meet all different customers’ needs, TLC offers a wide set of English certification programs:

TEFL Certification Program
The first step in a TEFL teacher’s career. It’s a 4-weeks, in-house, intensive program full of both theory and practice. This is a course suitable for new teachers or teachers who are looking for brand-new teaching methods. TEFL certificates are internationally-accredited and recognized by organizations and institutions all around the world.

Distance TEFL Certification
The distance TEFL program is a good alternative for the people who haven’t enough time to go to a school and attend a language course. TEFL Certification Program’s material will be accessible online for students attending the course. In addition, they will have live conferences with TLC’s staff and they’ll be expected to complete live teaching practice for which they’ll receive a valuable feedback.

Teaching English to Young Learners Certification
After having received a standard basic training, sometimes teachers wish to specialize in teaching to young learners. This short certification course was conceived just for this purpose and it’s available via distance learning or in-house.

Teaching Business English Certification
For all the teachers who wish to specialize in teaching Business English, this short course will provide them a perfect formation for facing this world with ease and confidence.

Hence, at TLC there’s a wide set of English courses to choose among and a lot of opportunities for achieving an English certification, which will allow both students and teachers improve and attest their English language skills in business and school.

Further information about TLC English Language Certifications are available on TLC’s website.

About the Author

Web Marketing Team is a company specialized in the online web marketing sector. We employ the network as an instrument of communication and work, and use the marketing as a medium to streamline the outcomes of our effort. The purpose of our work is to produce and to address high quality web traffic toward our customers’ sites so to reach real and clear outcomes.

Learning Japanese – Useful Phrases: Shopping

Shopping in Japan is usually a very enjoyable experience as they take the Western motto “The customer is always right” to another level with “Okyakusama wa kamisama”, literally “The customer is God!”. And it is no exaggeration to say that you are treated like one. From the second you enter the door (or often meters before you reach it) you are greeted with a bellowing “IRASHAIMASE!” (WELCOME!) by the first staff member to spot you, then echoed by every other available attendant. The next part can get a little tricky if you don’t know a lot of Japanese as they tend to follow you around the store offering intricate details about everything you stop to look at. Although they don’t seem to do this anywhere as much when dealing with foreigners as they understand it is not custom to do so in most countries. But it’s a great opportunity to practice or learn Japanese if you so wish. Either way, here are some of the most common words and useful Japanese phrases that will come in handy when shopping.

*Note: The Japanese language uses a lot of particles when writing that are usually dropped in conversation (unless when speaking extremely formally). Similar to Saying “I’m…” rather than “I am…”. Most text books include these but I have omitted them to help you learn Japanese in a more natural manner.

When entering the store:

*Irasshaimase – Welcome *Nanika osagashi desuka? – Are you looking for something (in particular)?

*Miteru dake desu – I’m just looking *Hai, ____arimasuka? – Do you have any ____?

Clothing names: (many are derived from English names as you may pick up!)

*Zubon – Pants *Denimu – Jeans *Hanzubon – Shorts *Shaatsu – Shirt *Seeta – Sweater *Boushi – Hat

*Buruzon/ Daun – Jacket *Wanpiisu – Dress *Mafura – Scarf *Kutsu – Shoes *Kutsushita – Socks


*Aka – Red *Ao – Blue *Midori – Green *Kiiro – Yellow *Kuro – Black *Shiro – White *Pinku – Pink

*Orenji – Orange *Murasaki – Purple *Chairo – Brown

*____iro arimasuka? – Do you have it in ____(color)? *Chigau iro arimasuka? – Do you have a different color?

Other phrases:

*Kore wa ikura desuka? – How much is this? *Chotto takai desu – It’s a little expensive

*Mou sukoshi ____ no arimasuka? – Do you anything ____? (Ookii – Bigger, Chiisai – Smaller, Yasui – Cheaper)

*Chotto kangaemasu – I’ll think about it *Arigatou gozaimasu – Thank you

Numbers: (Note- Yen is pronounced as ‘en’ at the end of the price)

*1 – ichi, 2 – ni, 3 – san, 4 – shi, 5 – go, 6 – roku, 7 – nana, 8 – hachi, 9 – kyu, 10 – jyu.

*Add a number then jyu (ten) to make twenty, thirty etc. For example nijyu = twenty, gojyu = fifty.

*Hyaku – hundred *Sen – Thousand *Man – Ten thousand *Jyuman – hundred thousand

*Some examples- 2,500 – Ni sen go hyaku, 11,400 – ichiman sen yon hyaku, 255 – ni hyaku go jyu go

(There are some minor changes made to numbers when grouping together but it will get too complicated to mention them here.

I have focussed on clothing shopping in this article but you can easily insert other words in their place. There are plenty of free Japanese dictionaries on the net where you can find the words for your particular purpose. GANBATTE! (good luck) with learning Japanese and HAPPY SHOPPING!

About the Author

Adam has been living in Japan for over twelve years and runs his own school teaching both Japanese and English.
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